Ultrasound Effects on Algae, Cyanobacteria and Biofilm

Green algae and diatoms have been found to be damaged by sound waves in studies with frequencies ranging from 20 khz to 60 khz putting it in the ultrasonic region.  The damage is done by resonating the inner cell wall that generates a sympathetic rebound and ultimately causes a tear between it and the contractile vacuole that regulates the internal pressure.  The inner cell wall is called the plasmalemma and its structure and design can vary widely between different types of algae.  Once it is broken from the contractile vacuole, it will collapse inside the outer algae sheath an d c ause the cell to die.  It is impossible to know what is the exact frequency that damages each type of algae.  There are estimated to be upwards to 100000 different species.  Our control strategy takes the range of 24 to 64 khz and covers it with 79 frequencies within that range.  The idea is to get close enough to a resonating frequency to create the damaging effect.  As algae grow and reproduce, they likely go through a number of frequencies that may be damaging to them, so you don’t have to be exact, just close enough.
Cyanobacteria are different than green algae.  They have gas vesicles that are only one protein layer thick and easy to break.  They only learned what these things looked like in the early 1970’s.  The ultrasonic device does not kill them directly, but breaking the gas vesicles causes them to lose buoyancy so they sink out of light and die.  Since the device is not strong enough to break the outer cell wall, the trapped gas from the vesicles migrates to the outer wall and slowly leaks through in about 3 days.  To see this effect you need an electron microscope.  Gas vesicles are extremely tiny and there are hundreds in each cyanobacteria cell.
Some scientists believe that it is cavitation that causes the damage, but if you do the math you will see that it would be impossible to create a cavitation zone large enough to be effective and even if you did, the ultrasonic device would be prohibitively expensive.   This belief stems from early work in this field by Paul Langevin, the French scientist that developed sonar in the early 1920’s.  They noted that algae died around the sonar test sight and since the device created a cavitational field, they assumed that cavitation, a very strong force related to turbulence, was responsible.  In the 1890’s they noted similar effects when algae blooms disappeared around mining sites where dynamite was exploded underwater.  In this case the shockwave of the explosions caused the damage.
Some algae are so complex internally that it is difficult to cause them to resonate and be damaged.  Types that are similar to plants with true branching filaments are generally not affected by the technology.  In the last two years we learned that a difficult blue-green algae (Lyngbya) can be damaged by a slightly higher energy output level.  We were the first to note this and are working to improve upon this finding.
One last piece of information that you may find interesting is that facultative anaerobic bacteria are influenced by the sound waves.  They behave as if they are in turbulent water conditions where they do not seek to reproduce in such turbulent water.  We have used this finding to keep tanks and water processing equipment clean from biofilm growth.
George Hutchinson, President, AlgaeControl.US

Basic Glossary of Invasive Aquatic Plants

Water Chestnut is Invasive
We've been getting quite a few calls lately regarding aquatic plants which are not native to a pond environment, yet seem to be taking it over bit-by-bit-ie. "Invasive Plants". Let's first look at a concise definition of what classifies an invasive plant (Invasive.org)
Invasive and Exotic Species of North America
any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem; and whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.

The classification of invasive plants can get a bit complicated, so below we are giving our readers a basic glossary of invasive plants.Below are definitions of the terms you may see in the stories about invasive aquatic plants:
Aggressive (a gres’iv):
Behavior marked by combative readiness; growing, developing, or spreading
rapidly; more severe, intensive, or comprehensive than usual especially in
dosage or extent
Aquarium ornamentals (a-kwer’e em or’ne ment’ls):
Plants that are put in aquariums for decorative purposes. In a home
aquarium, plants also can provide some of the same benefits as plants in the
wild, providing shelter and hiding places for fish and during the daytime,
photosynthesis helps take carbon dioxide produced by the fish out of the
water and puts oxygen back in.
Aquatic plants (e-kwat’ik pl’ants):
Literally “water plants,” that live on or in the water. An example of a plant
that lives on the water is a water lily. Plants that live in the water include
invasives such as Egeria densa and milfoil.
Bilge (bilj):
The compartment at the bottom of the boat where water collects that then is
pumped out or drained. The water that gets in the bilge can come from rain,
spray or small leaks such as loose fittings or joints as well as cracked or torn
Displace (dis plas):
In the case of invasive aquatic weeds, this means push out. Foreign invaders
such as milfoil and Egeria densa do this by literally pushing native plants out
of an environment by robbing them of nutrients and sunlight and by creating
water-quality conditions that make it hard for other plants, and sometimes
even fish and other aquatic life, to survive.
Eradication (e rad’ikat’shun):To tear up by the roots; to get rid of as if by tearing up by the roots.
Established (e stab’lish’d):
To make stable; make firm; set (to establish a habitat)
Hull (hul):
The body of a ship or boat. It keeps the water out and serves as the platform
for building the decks, cabins, etc.
Infestation (in fes ta shun):
To spread in or overrun as a nuisance or danger. In the case of invasive
aquatic weeds, the definition fits perfectly because of what the plants do to
the aquatic environment, the enjoyment that swimmers, boaters and anglers
lose, and the economic costs that farmers, ranchers, resort owners, groups
such as watershed councils and government agencies spend to try and
control or eliminate them.
Invasive (in va’ziv):
A species that is non-native, able to establish on many sites, grow quickly,
and spread to the point of disrupting ecosystems. It is also an alien species
whose introduction does or is likely to cause harm to the economy,
environment or human health.
Livewell (liv wel):
A tank on board a boat in which fish — from bait to an angler’s catch — can
be kept alive. Water is pumped into and drained out of the livewell to keep
oxygen in the water for the fish to breath. And it is the tubes as well as the
tank that can serve as hiding places for invasive aquatic weeds and other
unwanted pests to hitchhike from one lake, pond or river to another.
Mat (mat):
In the case of noxious water weeds, such as Egeria densa or milfoil, this
refers to the way a weed grows. The growth tips of the plants spread and
sprawl at the water’s surface creating a dense layer of vegetation that keeps
sunlight from getting to the lower-growing plants below and makes
activities, such as swimming or boating, virtually impossible.
Monoecious (mo nee shus):
A plant species in which male and female organs are found on the same
plant but in different flowers.
Native (naa’tiv), Indigenous (in dijj’e nes):
A species that is a part of the balance of nature that has developed over
hundreds or thousands of years in a particular region or ecosystem. Species
native to North America are generally recognized as those occurring on the
continent prior to European settlement.
Non-native (non’naa’tiv), Nonindigenous (non’in djj’e nes), Foreign
(for’in), Alien (al’yen), Exotic (eg za’tik), Introduced (in’tre doos’d):
A species typically added with human help (intentionally or accidentally) to
a new place or new type of habitat where it was not previously found.
pH (p h):
A scale used to measures the acidity or alkalinity of something, from soil
and swimming pools to ponds and lakes. Distilled water at 77 degrees has a
pH of 7, and is called neutral. A pH above 7 is considered alkaline, while a
pH below 7 is acidic. Baking soda, as an example, is slightly alkaline and
has a pH of 9. The acid produced by your stomach, on the other hand, is very
acidic, with a pH of 1.
Photosynthesis (foto sen thi sis):
Photosynthesis is the process by which most plants use the green pigment
chlorophyll to convert sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into the “food”
that they need to live and grow. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the air
for us to breathe.
Snowbirds (sno burds):
People whom, just as with some birds, migrate south in the winter to avoid
cold, rain and snow. Snowbirds return in the spring and early summer,
towing their boats that can pose potential problems in the form of aquatic
invaders from lakes, ponds and rivers from those warmer climates.
Wetlands (whet’landz):
Land or areas (as marshes or swamps) that are covered often intermittently
with shallow water or have soil saturated with moisture.

Other Related Sources for Further Exploration of Invasive Plants
Plants Database
Invasive Plant Atlas

AlgaeControl.US Receives A+ Rating by BBB

A+ Rating on BBB
That's right aquaculture fans!  South Santee Aquaculture aka AlgaeControl.US received a phenomenal A+ rating by the Better Business Bureau.  See for yourself under "fishery consultants" on the BBB website.  What does this mean?
BBB issues Reliability Reports on all businesses, whether or not they are BBB accredited. If a business is a BBB Accredited Business, it is stated in this report.
Thank you for making us so valuable to your environment!  If you'd like to rate us on Google Places, feel free to stop by our new Google Place Page and drop us a review or find us on our new Google Map!

Pondzilla is the Monster of Muck

Are there Monsters In Your Pond?  There Should Be
The Muck In Your Pond Better Watch Out

Our good friends over at Team Aquafix make some pretty amazing products for cleaning wastewater, eliminating undesirables from your pond and lake and making any body of water cleaner and easier to maintain.  One such invention of theirs is the almighty Pondzilla, mentioned on their blog once before. Pondzilla happens to also be available in our toolbar store below or on our products page with Free Shipping anywhere in the United States!

What is Pondzilla?
PondZilla is an catalyst which helps to polish a lake or pond. Pondzilla works by reacting with dead plant matter in a water body and converting it to simple sugars. These sugars are then uptaken by bacteria.

What does it do?
This process helps to polish a lake, clean the water column and degrade muck. PondZilla can be applied with herbicides.
pondzilla 100
Muck degrading catalyst

Lake/Pond Initial Application Maintenance Application
Organic Content Gal./acre Gal./acre
Low Content  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 .5  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .0 .75
Medium Content  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 3 .0  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2 .0
High Content  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .. .10 .0  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ...  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 3 .0

Introducing eLemna-8 An Ecofriendly Duckweed Destroyer

Solving the Problem of Duckweed

The primary problem with duckweed is the waxy outer coating which enables it to float and by floating as a mass block sunlight from reaching the bottom of your pond. No sunlight, no photosynthesis, no growth below, so it kills what is below it. It also reduces the oxygen in the water aiding the anaerobic decomposition of the dying biomass and other muck on the bottom.  This is what causes the bad smells.  These type of bacteria also release phosphates from the dying biomass, which helps the duckweed grow even faster!

That waxy coating inhibits a lot of herbicides from being effective requiring multiple applications and long term concentrations in the water to be effective.  If the wax can be removed to give a pathway for the herbicides to enter the plant, even simple herbicides like liquid copper (EarthTec®) can work because they are effective once they get into the interior of the leaf and to the chlorophyll.  However this was a problem in the past due to the reasons stated above-ie getting the herbicide through the waxy coating (which can grow back almost as fast as you remove it) and into the plant itself. Problem Solved! Introducing eLemna-8, an invention by fishery biologist Kevin Hutchinson and chemical engineer George Hutchinson of South Santee Aquaculture and AlgaeControl.US.

An environmentally friendly blend of natural dewaxing agents,
cereal based microsponge sticking agents, emulsifiers, muck
degrading enzymes and tracer dye. Accelerates the natural
bacterial decomposition of aquatic plants and algae.

What is Duckweed?
Lemna minor or "Duckweed"
Shakespeare referred to "duckweed" as "Green mantle of the standing pool." Duckweeds (otherwise known as Lemna minor) are plants that are well-known to everybody, and consequently very few persons know anything of them. This is a paradox; but they are so common and so small that the average man or woman is content to know them in the aggregate, and cannot condescend to a more intimate acquaintance with individuals, or with the different species, yet like many other small things - "unconsidered trifles" - they are very interesting to the botanist; for these are among the smallest and simplest of the flowering plants. Taking up two or three plants from one pond and comparing them with some from another piece of water, we shall probably find a difference in them; but they are all possessed of a more or less flattened green body that floats on the water, and which we shall be inclined to call a leaf. It is not a leaf, however, but a plant that produces no leaves, though it has roots and flowers. To be more accurate we will call it a frond, from whose under-surface there goes down one or more simple unbranched roots, and in clefts of whose margin are simple flowers.

(This section is from the book "Wayside And Woodland Blossoms", by Edward Step. Also available from Amazon: Wayside And Woodland Blossoms: A Guide To British Wild-Flowers.)

Where is Duckweed Found?
Lemna minor (Common Duckweed or ) is a species of Lemna (duckweed) with a subcosmopolitan distribution, native throughout most of Africa, Asia, Europe and North America, occurring everywhere that freshwater ponds and slow-moving streams occur, except for arctic and subarctic climates. It is not reported as native in Australasia or South America, though is naturalized there.

How does eLemna-8 Work?
eLemna-8 is able to not only penetrate the waxy coating of duckweed (so that algaecides such as EarthTec® can do their work to the interior of the plant, it will actually strip the plant of the wax and allow the plant to die gracefully, floating to the bottom of the pond to become food and biomatter for other aquatic life to gain nutrients from. So in practice, using eLemna-8 in combination with EarthTec® you are able to accelerate the natural bacterial decomposition of aquatic plants and algae.

Below you will find a few helpful documents about eLemna-8, including a MSDS sheet and seller information. You may also purchase eLemna-8 from our store in the blog toolbar below.

Related Research Links for Duckweed:
Lemna minor Lesser Duckweed [Rook.org and USDA Plants Database]

Rydlyme Marine Test for Boat Cleaning Applications

Kevin Hutchinson Owner of South Santee Aquaculture
Watch this test video below that we made which shows just how powerful Rydlyme Marine is at eating away shells and other crusted marine growth which forms on the bottom of boats and other marine vessels. Also added to our SouthSanteeTV channel on Youtube.

What is Rydlyme Marine? (brochure at bottom of post)

RYDLYME Marine is a safe biodegradable marine descaler developed to dissolve problematic fouling mediums including calcium, rust, zebra mussels, barnacles, tiger shells and other mineral deposits that hinder the performance of vital water
systems. This safe and simple solution effectively dissolves rock-like scale deposits that contaminate your water-cooled marine equipment.

RYDLYME Marine can be used on all types of vessels including workboats, cruise ships, mega yachts, freighters, and recreational boats. With RYDLYME Marine you can clean-in-place to reduce workload and save valuable maintenance dollars. Our innovative product has no waste disposal problems; it is biodegradable in any concentration.

RYDLYME Marine can help save you money by removing unwanted marine deposits on heat exchangers, engine cooling systems, condensers and many more applications where fouling is a problem.

Watch as Rydlyme eats this Shell for Lunch!

Some Product Shots-Don't eat these...
Rydlyme Marine Brochure
A Brochure for Rydlyme Marine is available to you below or by contacting us at South Santee Aquaculture
You can also contact us through the toolbar at the bottom of this page-and for that matter, order Rydlyme from the store in the toolbar.
Rydlyme Marine Large Container
Rydlyme comes in various sizes, depending on the type of application you are wanting to use it for. You have the small tester size above and this 30 gallon Container below.

Rydlyme Brochure for Download

Warm Your Pool or Pond With This DIY Project

I'd bet you never would have thought that your electric bill could be lowered using hula hoops!  It can, if you have a pool.  With a little help from Make (via Lifehacker) you can use Do-It-Yourself Hula Hoop Lily Pads to warm your pool and cut a huge chunk off of your electric bill.  I'd also be willing to bet that this same hack can be applied to your pond, with enough ingenuity.  Below is a video instructional that tells you everything you need in order to create Hula Hoop Lily pads..enjoy!

Weekend Project: Lily Pad Pool Warmers [Make]

Find an AlgaeControl.US Dealer in Your Area

You can now locate a AlgaeControl Dealer in your area, via this handy google map below.  We have dealers who specialize in all types of aquatic management services and have chemical-free products for your lakes and ponds, including Ultrasound!